#DesignTop5 4-door saloons

Thanks to a car designer named Matteo Licata I wanted to expand on another Twitter discussion. At this link Matteo complied a nice write up of his Top 5 saloon cars (with 4 doors). Since the first day I saw the Rover SD1 that my father bought from our neighbour (in 1987?) I have always preferred a more sleek silhouette to the 4 door 3 box type of car. As a family we grew up with hatchbacks, estates, and even that Rover fastback. At some point my dad was forced to drive company cars which included some saloons, such as a Sierra Sapphire (a comfortable little shed), and even a Ford Orion (not as bad as we expected it to be), but mostly given a choice we had hatchbacks. I’ve only ever owned one saloon car myself in 24 years, and that was a Hillman Avenger. Nevertheless I decided to choose my own favourite designs in this globally popular car shape. In no particular order…

Firstly I agree with Matteo that the Citroen DS is possibly the greatest “saloon” car ever designed. It looks nothing like a traditional 3 box saloon! It is so different I don’t even count it myself, it is just so far removed from all preceding or following designs. So that might be my no.1. and 5 runners up could be…

Mercedes W124

Surely the definitive Mercedes? Solid, but light, formal but elegant. Not too big, not too small. I’ve driven one briefly and it felt (and looked) like granit formed into a car shape, from exterior right through to it’s wonderful interior. Never to be bettered?


Alfa Romeo 164

Yes the Alfa 156 is truly stunning. Beautiful and interesting at the same time. The 164 though, is outstandingly restrained and beautiful. Formal, and informal. Quite utilitarian looking for an Italian car, with its many plastic panels and rubbing strips- but at the same time it is elegant and sophisticated. Pure magic that only Italian designers can conjure up!


Rover Sterling

Yes, I loved the SD1 and was amazed that Rover replaced it with a saloon (but rapidly added the fastback style too). I had a Matchbox model of this, and it predated the Alfa 164 with a similar look (two-tone body) by one year (1986, then 1987 for the Alfa). I loved this linear, modern high-tech look in my youth. It is so wonderfully 80s, but at the same time expertly executed in it’s design details. The original styling model is shown here, from 1983! Find out more from Keith Adams excellent website.


Lincoln Continental 1961 – 1969

The definitive long, low, wide and truly American saloon car design. The Wachowski brothers new what car was needed to represent the peak of the 20th century in The Matrix, and it was this one (a 1963 model actually).


Jaguar XJ40

Controversial, but again my love of rectangular saloon shapes means I genuinely prefer the XJ40 over the XJ series III that it was supposed to replace. The subtlety of this design is fantastic. It borrowed from global design trends then expertly mixed those with more traditional forms of Jaguar.


Audi A6 (C5)

The design lecturers example. Perfect proportions, almost to the point of not knowing if it’s FWD, or RWD or perhaps AWD (Quattro as intended). The arc of the DLO and it’s perfectly balanced placement within the wheelbase, combined with the dangerously unadorned rear end (imagine a tow hook added, or an exhaust pipe!) this was the Apple iPhone of saloon cars.

audi A6

Skyline R32

An oddity. When I discovered these existed I was amazed. Did they design the 2 door first, then just extend it to be a saloon? Like coach built limousines. To see a sporty shape like this, as a core part of a saloon design (not bulged and added post-design) is unusual. Subaru used this theme on many saloons after, but Nissan did it first!

nissan_skyline_history_picture (65)

Lagonda Taraf and Aston Martin Rapide

Declaring a personal interest here as quite a lot of my friends, and even family, work at Aston… but I really can’t help loving all the 4-doors they have produced over the last few years. The Rapide was a beautiful if somewhat impractical +2 development of the DB9 shape. Then later Lagonda was reborn with the astonishing low volume Taraf model. Enormously long, but aimed at giving a massive amount of rear passenger space, the shape reminds of the original William Towns Lagonda while also connecting with other Aston form language. This design might have inspired many other big saloon designs that have followed, such as the VW Arteon or the Mazda Vision Coupe. I’ve cheated a bit here including both, but there’s actually 7 cars mentioned in this post!






Posh Evoque

The Range Rover Evoque is supposed to be posh… so in 2012 it was launched by Posh. Posh Spice of course, the infamous Victoria Beckham. At the time the event and project that was organised by JLR to launch the car gently raised a few eyebrows when Mrs Beckham presented a special edition of the new Evoque ‘designed’ by her. Little did we realise that one of the very people who orchestrated this event, and this special edition, was not particularly happy at the time. Quite strangely this story has resurfaced 5 years later, with comments from design director Gerry McGovern.

Mr McGovern said at a publicity event last week: “She didn’t design the car… I’ve forgotten more than that woman will ever know about [car] designing – to be a car designer takes years.”

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4700192/Victoria-Beckham-centre-Range-Rover-row.html#ixzz4n1s04yJe

This could be aimed at boosting current Range Rover publicity? Who knows what Gerry’s motivation is to appear in The Sun, but it’s currently being reported by the British tabloids such as The Sun and The Daily Mail, who call it an “extraordinary row”. It is certainly unusual, especially as the main complaint is coming 5 years after the incident. It opens up a debate  around the attributing of design originality to specific designers. Credit for certain designs is a complex issue and 7 years ago I wrote a post here on this subject. Design Directors and chief designers are the public face of any car design story, and often they seem to be claiming work they didn’t do as their own. They are of course responsible for an entire design department and must take the good and bad comments about any design, sometimes directly. The headlines and articles from the tabloids contain very inaccurate (as usual) statements such as a claim that Gerry McGovern MADE the Evoque. The Sun journalists seem to think that a design director gets out his spanners and welding equipment, to personally construct every one of the 1000s of Evoques that the Range Rover factory turn out.. Terrible lack of expert knowledge or research. The reality is of course, that even Gerry McGovern did not design the Evoque. His very talented and large team of exterior and interior designers, plus clay and CAD modellers, colour and trim designers and even digital GUI designers DID. The teams that work together to create any vehicle are large, and that is simply the design stage. Then there is engineering teams that number in the 100s sometimes 1000s to get a vehicle ready for mass production. finally the factory starts production and another entirely different set of robots, and people, begin to bolt the cars together at astonishing rates. Design leaders protect their hard-working teams from negativity, and we might suggest that McGovern is annoyed in this instance for Victoria Beckham claiming credit for his teams work. Victoria Beckham has her own fashion label- and therefore counts herself as a fashion designer. In this capacity she ‘designs’ clothes and accessories, and that process involves zero engineering – but it does involve design decision-making. When she was asked to create a special edition Ranger Rover she of course contributed in a way that she was familiar with, and one which she has learned to call ‘design’ (because it IS design). She choose unique colours and material choices for the factory to piece together into her limited edition Evoque. To all intents she was right to say that she ‘designed’ her VB edition car, that she then stood in front of in 2012. It is of course, almost impossible for the depth of the automotive design business to be explained in a simple soundbite or tweet- to enable JLR to explain the difference between what Mrs Beckham did, or what Gerry McGovern did, or what his fabulous design team did. Words should be chosen very carefully, and indeed, Gerry is upset that she went off-script at that time- when we can imagine that the word ‘collaboration’ was something the Range Rover team had in mind? Much like Gerry’s own design collaborations… with the fashion world. 

McGovern fashion!



tabloid articles.




Another podcast – with friends.

Another podcast! This time I was kindly invited to take part in a round-table discussion with 2 other vehicle designers. The hosts of the Motoring Podcast were interested to hear about the basic principles of vehicle design, mostly in the area of why cars look the way they do and some fun questions about our favourite designs. Link is here: 

Designers Roundtable – The Motoring Podcast ep.114 Special Edition 

iTunes link to podcast – well worth subscribing to!

There’s also a YouTube video… 

DLO ratios (more on proportions)

Yet another Twitter conversation has turned into something I should post here. It feels like I waste a lot of time on Twitter, but to be honest I very much enjoy the debate that it stirs up. I completely agree with the complaints around being able to SEE OUT of any modern car. Designers obsession with low narrow window heights and dynamic rising DLOs, means that modern cars can be a real problem to see out of. For children using the rear seats this becomes even worse and most kids have no view onto the outside world while travelling. Motion sickness can result- although technically NO visibility at all can apparently be better for that issue. So I was busy playing with showing ratios in photoshop. A new Citroen C3 Aircross began the debate, as it has very large ratio of metal to glass. Others named cars they presumed to have huge areas of glass- but analysis shows that even these stick to similar proportions to any sportscar. The preferred ratio is to keep the DLO graphic- meaning the ratio of glass to metal (of the door to sill area) below 50% for the glass. For example the worst offender in recent years was the Fiat Multipla. Our favourite example of great bad design. The glass/metal ratio is 50/50 and even heading into 55/45 towards the front side windows perhaps. A Twitter users own Porsche was mentioned as an example of a car with lots of glass- but here we can also see it has the magic formula for DLO/metal ratio. This ratio was dynamic in the days of the Porsche 924, compared to ordinary cars, but now just about every vehicle uses this dynamic and strong ratio to help us all imagine we are driving a Porsche… not an ordinary car!


Spotted today. Can you name these two saloon/sedan cars? Very nice but very similar. The interesting part is that only one of these saloons is a classic front longitudinal engined rear wheel drive car. The engine Mounted behind the front axle for perfect weight distribution. The other is a standard front wheel drive layout. The proportions are the same however. These are what are known as premium proportions. Originally they came from the drivetrain packaging layout, but now designers apply these proportions as an aesthetic to produce a premium product.


Lexus LS analysis

Well this debate began over on Twitter, with some other working car designers being quite vocal on how bad this new Lexus LS design is. I think it has problems, but I am willing to accept some progressive experimentation. Lexus in particular has been heavily experimenting in various styling and surfacing ideas, some good some bad. The LC coupe is particularly nice, but has gone through many iterations and concept cars to come out the other side. It still has some odd design details, but for a sportscar it is important to grab the viewers attention. The LS on the other hand, is intended as an executive model, with luxury in mind. It has traditionally appeared as quite a conservative design. The surfaces and design ideas are chaotic and a little messy, which is something designers have noted. The strangest thing is the proportions, with a great emphasis on cab-backward proportions. It is almost unique in the way that the peak of the side DLO is in the middle of the rear door. Similarities to other sedans (saloons) were noted, and similarity in supposed “bad” design. The new Civic sedan is something that I am not impressed by, for example. The most similar proportionally, and a possible clue to Toyotas intended rival and benchmark design, is the Tesla Model S. I decided to put together an image comparing lots of current sedans on sale now. Looking for that strange proportion (which must give great rear passenger headroom?). Maserati Ghibli seems a good candidate. Lexus LS-side-profileplusothers@0,75x



Motoring Podcast Interview with the author!

Well this year has been incredibly busy, especially with my job where I’ve seen progress on my Vehicle Design course connecting with the industry. Meanwhile Twitter seems to be a place for my connections to grow and this led to a very fun situation where I was asked to be interviewed by Andrew Clews of The Motoring Podcast. Andrew managed to draw a lot of personal history from me, over the course of 3 hours chatting!  A very pleasant experience, it was split into two instalments due to length and I can part 1 and part 2 with you all now. Part 1 is about 1 hour, and covers similar topics to this blog. Part 2 is 2 hours talking about my own car ownership history!

Motoring Podcast – Rear View – Lee Walton Part 1

Motoring Podcast – Rear View – Lee Walton Part2